Individuals facing administrative detention do not have the right to seek legal counsel. Criminal defendants are eligible for legal assistance, but the vast majority of criminal defendants went to trial without a lawyer. Courts often punished defendants who refused to acknowledge guilt with harsher sentences than those who confessed. The appeals process rarely reversed convictions, and it failed to provide sufficient avenues for review; remedies for violations of defendants’ rights were inadequate.
- The 2013 mass surveillance disclosures revealed that agencies such as the NSA and the FBI have the ability to eavesdrop on Skype, including the monitoring and storage of text and video calls and file transfers.
- If the United States wants to lead the world in AI, it will require funding, focus, and a willingness among U.S. policymakers to drive large-scale necessary change.
- Other reports continued throughout the year regarding PRC pressure on Xinjiang-based relatives of persons located outside of China who spoke publicly about the detentions and abusive policies underway inside Xinjiang.
- There is no information on how they use that information, nor how or whether the data is stored for future use.
- Some of the most intriguing evidence of personal data surveillance comes from computer programming code stored in the database and seemingly designed to generate reports.
- The government recognizes five official religions – Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Protestantism, and Catholicism.
- Ongoing pollution control policies accounted for the other half of the improvement, Myllyvirta said.
Independent unions are illegal, and the law does not protect the right to strike. The law allows for collective wage bargaining for workers in all types of enterprises. The law further provides for industrial sector-wide or regional collective contracts, and enterprise-level collective contracts were generally compulsory throughout the country. Regulations require the government-controlled union to gather input from workers prior to consultation with management and to submit collective contracts to workers or their congress for approval.
QR-code based mobile payments such as WeChat Pay (微信支付 Wēixìn zhīfù) and Alipay (支付宝 Zhīfùbǎo) are extremely popular in China. The vast majority of places that take small payments, including restaurants, street-food places, and some public transportation in large cities, accept either or both of WeChat Pay and Alipay. Look for a QR-code posted with the App logo of WeChat or Alipay to find places that accept these payment types. China now has the world’s longest network of high-speed railways called CRH, including the world’s only high-speed sleeper trains. CRH trains are top-notch, even internationally, in terms of equipment and cleanliness. You must re-register if your visa or residence permit undergoes any changes — extensions, or changes in passport (even here, it is ideal to re-register when you get a new passport, regardless if you’ve transferred the visa or residence permit to the new passport).
He himself was sentenced to three years in prison, then served another five-and-a-half-year term. One of his brothers was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1996, he said, and another brother was sentenced to six and a half years and is still in prison. district of click here Ürümqi describes a mother involved in a “national security incident” who was put into re-education, then a vocational training school. The training centers are purportedly intended to transmit vocational and other skills but are clearly prison-like, with barbed wire, high walls, watchtowers, and internal camera systems. Categories of people often stopped at checkpoints include relatives of offenders and relatives of detainees. In many cases, relatives were asked to record their call and share it with the police, or they were interviewed immediately after to see how they were doing after the call.
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Minorities in some provinces, however, were entitled to higher limits on their family size. According to women’s rights activists, a recurring problem in the prosecution of domestic violence cases was a failure by authorities to collect evidence, including photographs, hospital records, police records, or children’s testimony. The government supported shelters for victims of domestic violence, and some courts provided protections to victims, including through court protective orders prohibiting a perpetrator of domestic violence from coming near a victim. Nonetheless, official assistance did not always reach victims, and public security forces often ignored domestic violence. Legal aid institutions working to provide counseling and defense to victims of domestic violence were often pressured to suspend public activities and cease all forms of policy advocacy, an area that was reserved only for government-sponsored organizations. While the tightly controlled state media apparatus publicized some notable corruption investigations, in general very few details were made public regarding the process by which CCP and government officials were investigated for corruption.